There is the capacity to focus awareness, which is focusing energy, which is shaping creation.
The styles of spell casting do divide into different domains, but these domains are psychological more than metaphysical. Human opinion more than universal reality. The two broadest perhaps being light workers versus night kind. These are not actually opposed, but people having strong opinions like they do, they created oppositions.
There have always been those who loved the night, and who were what other people might call morbid. Who would contemplate a kill they found in the wild, or contemplate how they should live and think after death in an immediate and personal way rather than the theurgic way.
There are those who prefer to keep their mind on the normal and the obviously alive and simple. Who are comforted by the seen and the planned. Who prefer the domestic life and warm fuzzy critters. This showed up even in shamanistic cultures. The wise people who showed a connection for those things that were considered allies of the tribe, who were sought out for their healing and nurturing abilities. Then those who showed an affinity for those things that were considered adversaries of the tribe, who still had their place.
There were no witch hunts among them. The wise men and women who were connected to adversary spirits were still called on for help. They were the problem solvers. Those sought when things weren’t going normally. They were the exorcists and demon hunters. It was believed that only those who were connected to the night could oppose the adversaries.
Now both sides could become corrupt and had those who did, more on the night side than on the light. Because when the night warriors were turned on, they felt that their people betrayed them, when the light workers often just converted to whatever theurgy they were actually allowed to practice. The wise men became priests. But the witches and warlocks could not follow their path in the church, though some converted anyway to take their way underground into hiding.
So away from history. The reason I explained that is you might not recognize your style of spellcasting when you see it. You may have strong feelings about how only the normal and simple and light based is acceptable when in fact your path may be darker, or wilder, or more otherworldly than people these days are willing to accept.
I had one person who took me as a mentor, and who just felt disempowered by all the normal stuff. Just couldn’t connect with nature in a peaceful way, or ideas of God, much of anything really. He was quite distressed. Well, he found a way.
Ever hear what they call thrash metal? When he would lose himself in hopping and head banging and just going wild to a thrash metal song, he discovered that he would start having insights. At least until he started trying to be normal, things would make sense for him.
The holy mosh pit. It can indeed be a temple and a stage an altar. But it was a simple thing to teach him ways he could go wild, in a more general sense. How he could apply it to anything and everything. He started having a non stop stream of inspiration. The rest is history. He found his path. Among the Norse he would just have been a berserker. With the Native Americans he would have been one of the fiercer hunters and a warrior.
Sometimes the power of one of these spellcasting methods overcomes the user. They lose their balance. This is why a community or mentor can help. This is perhaps where a God comes in. When you have a God or totem for an anchor, no matter how caught up you are in your spells, you always have a reference point to check where you are. When your spellcasting has carried you too far away from owl, it doesn’t matter if owl is actually angry or not, you are still off balance. It’s a call to center yourself again.
For necromancers, this was often a death figure or ancestor spirit. For theurgists, this was often something angelic. For shamans, it was their totem. All basically the same thing.
Your thoughts are welcome. Be well friends.